For more information contact:

Prof. Constantine A. Balanis
Department of Electrical Engineering
Telecommunications Research Center
Arizona State University
Tempe, AZ 85287-7206
Telephone: (480) 965-3909
FAX: (480) 965-8325


High-Frequency Asymptotic Methods for Scattering, Radiation and Communication


Dr. Constantine A. Balanis

Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics (John Wiley & Sons, 1989)
by Constantine A. Balanis


This course is designed for engineers and scientists in the fields of radiation, scattering, propagation, communication, navigation, radar, RF systems, remote sensing, and radio astronomy who require a better understanding of the underlying principles and applications of advanced electromagnetic methods for modeling and analyzing simple and complex antennas, scattering and communication problems. Knowledge of at least undergraduate electromagnetic theory is assumed.

Advanced methods are introduced in sequential order starting with Physical Optics (PO) and continuing with Geometric Optics (GO), Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD), Method of Equivalent Currents (MEC) and Physical Theory of Diffraction (PTD).

Each participant will receive a copy of the course book Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics (Wiley, 1989) by Constantine A. Balanis and additional supplementary material.


  1. Maxwell's Equations and Boundary Conditions

  2. Review of the Wave Equation and its solution in:
    1. Rectangular coordinates
    2. Cylindrical coordinates
    3. Spherical coordinates

  3. Radar Cross Section

  4. Radiation from Line Sources in an Unbounded Medium
    1. Electric
    2. Magnetic

  5. Scattering from a PEC Wedge
    1. Electric Line Source
    2. Magnetic Line Source

  6. Image Theory
    1. Line source above PEC strip

  7. Physical Optics (PO)
    1. Physical Optics (PO) equivalent
    2. Scattering from a PEC:
      1. Strip
      2. Rectangular Plate
      3. Circular Plate
      4. Dihedral Corner Reflector

  8. Diffraction (Introduction)
    1. Knife Edge
    2. Strip
    3. Curved Surface Diffraction (creeping waves)

  9. Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD)
    1. Conducting Wedge: Normal Incidence
    2. Wedge Diffraction Coefficients
    3. Two-Dimensional Diffractionn
    4. Three-Dimensional Diffraction
    5. Curved-Edge Diffraction
    6. Equivalent Currents in Diffraction
    7. Oblique Incidence
    8. Multiple Diffractions
    9. Scattering from PEC Corner Reflectors
    10. Two-Dimensional Wedge with Impedance Surfaces
      1. Maliuzhinets Functions
      2. Diffraction Coefficients
    11. Curved Surface Diffraction
      1. Creeping Waves
      2. Diffraction Coefficients
      3. Attenuation Coefficients
      4. Fock Funcitons
    12. Applications

  10. Physical Theory of Diffraction (PTD)
    1. PEC Wedge Diffraction
      1. Diffraction Coefficients
      2. Fringe Currents
      3. Equivalent Currents
    2. Scattering from PEC Corner Reflector
      1. Dihedral
      2. Trihedral

Course Duration:

The course duration is typically 4 days.

For possible dates, locations, and additional information, contact:

Prof. Constantine A. Balanis
Telephone: (480) 965-3909